The Logic of Metaphor

Analogous Parts of Possible Worlds

1. Introduction

1. Metaphors and Logic
2. Metaphor and Possible Worlds Semantics
2.1 Logical Truth-Conditions for Metaphors
2.2 Analogical Access and Counterparts
3. Analogical Counterparts
3.1 Hobbes's Analogy A STATE IS AN ORGANISM
3.2 Swanson's Analogy THE CELL IS A FACTORY
4. Theory-Constitutive Metaphors
4.1 Some Different Kinds of Metaphors
4.2 Explication of Theory-Constitutive Metaphors
4.3 Examples of Theory-Constitutive Metaphors
4.4 Analogical Inferences to Existence
5. Analyzing Metaphors
5.1 Literal and Metaphorical Meanings
5.2 Meanings and Contexts
5.3 Stories as Contexts for Metaphors
5.4 Descriptions as Contexts for Metaphors
5.5 Shared Syntactical Patterns of Descriptions
5.6 Shared Objective Patterns of Situations
5.7 Analogical Truth-Conditions for Metaphors
5.7.1 "Juliet is the sun"
5.7.2 "Her lips are cherries"
5.7.3 "Sally is a block of ice"
6. Philosophical Application of the Computer
Appendix 1.1: Sample Metaphorical Texts
1. Augustine: Memory as Stomach
2. Newton: Sound and Light
3. Kant: Human Action
4. Kant: The State
5. Schopenhauer: Experience
Appendix 1.2: Analogical Inferences to Existence
1. Argument by Analogy for Other Minds
2. Argument by Analogy for the Existence of God
3. Argument by Analogy for Imaginary Boolean Values
4. Argument by Analogy for the Null Individual
5. Argument by Analogy for Luminiferous Ether

2. Language

1. Introduction
2. Languages
2.1 The Internal and External Languages
2.2 Surface Structures and Deep Structures
2.3 Literal and Metaphorical Meanings
2.4 Context and Interpretation
3. The Grammar of Metaphor
3.1 Rewrite Rules
3.2 Grammatical Classes of Metaphors
3.3 Metaphorical Word-Combinations
3.4 Marking Word-Combinations as Literal or Metaphorical
3.5 Rewrite Rules for Making Metaphors
4. Propositions
4.1 The Predicate Calculus
4.2 Adding Thematic Roles to Propositions
4.3 Adding Indexes to Propositions
4.4 Logical Space and Situations
4.5 Analogous Situations in Logical Space
5. Propositions as Networks
5.1 Atomic Propositions as Networks
5.2 Reference and Truth for Atomic Propositions
5.3 Molecular Propositions as Networks
5.4 Descriptions of Situations
6. Conclusion
Appendix 2.1: Semantics
1. The Extended Predicate Calculus
1.1 Events and Occurrences
1.2 Arguments for Occurrences
1.3 Symbols in the Extended Predicate Calculus
1.4 Relations in the Extended Predicate Calculus
1.5 Models for the Extended Predicate Calculus
1.6 Sample Simple Logical Space
2. Situations
2.1 Situations are Collections of Occurrences
2.2 Sample Logical Space and Situation
2.3 Graphs of Situations
3. Semantics for the Extended Predicate Calculus
3.1 Meaning Functions and Variable Assignments
3.2 Truth-Values for Atomic Propositions
3.3 Atomic Proposition Correspond to States-of-Affairs
3.4 Truth-Values for Molecular Propositions
3.5 Truth-Values for Quantified Propositions
3.6 Truth-Values for Modal Propositions

3. Conceptual Structures

1. Introduction
2. The Network of Concepts
3. The Taxonomic Hierarchy of Types
4. The Mereological Hierarchy of Types
5. Taxonomic Hierarchy of Processes
6. Contrastive Structures
7. Symmetries in Networks
8. Rules and Lexical Entailments
9. Conceptual Fields
9.1 Fields are Clusters of Concepts
9.2 The Utility of Conceptual Fields
9.3 Similarity Fields and Topical Fields
9.4 How Metaphors Depend on Conceptual Fields
10. Conclusion
Appendix 3.1: Sample Descriptions
1. Descriptions as Input to NETMET
2. Methods for Making Input for NETMET
3. NETMET's Conceptual Network
4. Descriptions and their Textual Origins
5. Sample Descriptions
5.1 The Description of Human Reproduction
5.2 The Description of Intellectual Creativity
5.3 The Description of Memory
5.4 The Description of the Wax Tablet
5.5 The Description of the Aviary
5.6 The Description of the Atom
5.7 The Description of the Solar System

4. Analogy

1. Introduction
2. Towards a Formal Theory of Analogy
2.1 Formal Definition of Analogy
2.2 Subsymbolic Analogies
2.3 Synesthetic Analogies
3. The Stages of Analogical Inference
4. Analogical Access
4.1 The Purpose of the Access Phase
4.2 Analogical Access as a Kind of Plausible Inference
5. Analog Retrieval by Constraint Satisfaction
5.1 Plausible Inference via Constraint-Satisfaction in ARCS
5.2 The Network in ARCS
5.3 Arguments Used to Build an ARCS Network
5.4 Running an ARCS Network
5.5 Evaluation of ARCS
6. The Access Phase in NETMET
6.1 Generating the Target Field
6.2 Finding the Indexes in the Target
6.3 Collecting Target Predicates
6.4 Finding Candidate Source Indexes
6.5 Finding Candidate Source Fields
7. Analogical Mapping
7.1 The Analogical Mapping Function
7.2 Analogical Mapping as a Kind of Plausible Inference
7.3 Computing the Analogical Mapping Function
8. Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction
8.1 Generating Match Hypotheses
8.2 Relations between Match Hypotheses
8.3 Finding the Analogical Mapping Relation
8.4 Running the Hypotheses Network
9. Difficulties with Proportional Analogy
10. A Structural Model of Analogical Mapping
10.1 Structural Principles for Analogical Mapping
10.2 Principles for Generating a Hypothesis Network
10.2.1 The Principle of Proportional Analogy
10.2.2 The Principle of Extension to Contrast Sets
10.2.3 The Principle of Mereological Analogy
10.2.4 The Principle of Extension to Properties
10.2.5 The Principle of Extension to Covering Sets
10.2.6 The Principle of Mutual Inconsistency
10.3 Supplying External Activation to NETMET Hypothesis Nets
10.4 Running NETMET Hypothesis Nets to Convergence
10.5 Extracting a One-to-One Map
11. Conclusion

5. Analogical Transference

1. Introduction
2. Analogical Transference
2.1 The Mechanism of Analogical Transference
2.2 The Analogical Transference Operator
2.3 Adding Novel Propositions to the Target
3. Subsymbolic Analogical Transference
4. An Extended Example of Analogical Transference
5. Rules for Analogical Transference
5.1 The Process of Analogical Transference
5.2 Transference of Source Properties
5.3 Transference of Source Features
5.4 Transference of Source Relations and Processes
5.5 Transference of Source Rules
6. Analogical Transference and Induction
6.1 Inductive Arguments
6.2 Syntactic Form of Inductive Arguments by Similarity
6.3 Syntactic Form of Inductive Arguments by Analogy
6.4 The Problem of Inductive Support
6.5 Determination in Inductive Arguments by Similarity
6.6 Determination in Inductive Arguments by Analogy
6.7 Inductive Support for Analogically Transferred Propositions
7. Perfect Analogies
8. Self-Mirroring Universes
8.1 Analogous Situations within Possible Worlds
8.2 Black's Dual Universe
8.3 Infinite Two-Way Recurrence
8.4 Royce's Perfect Map of England
9. Conclusion
Appendix 5.1: Examples of Analogical Transference
1. Transference in the SOCRATES IS A MIDWIFE Analogy
2. Transference in the MEMORY IS A WAX TABLET Analogy
3. Transference in the MEMORY IS AN AVIARY Analogy

6. Metaphorical Communication

1. Introduction
2. Generating Metaphorical Utterances
2.1 From Analogies to Metaphors
2.2 Rules for Generating Metaphors
2.2.1 Noun-Identification Metaphors
2.2.2 Noun-Predication Metaphors
2.2.3 Noun-Identification Metaphors with Contrary Adjectives
2.2.4 Noun-Identification Metaphors with Literally Predicated Adjectives
2.2.5 Noun-Identification Metaphors with Functional Genitives
2.2.6 Noun-Identification Metaphors with Mereological Genitives
2.2.7 Simple Adjective-Predication Metaphors
2.2.8 Complex Adjective-Predication Metaphors
2.2.9 Verb-Predication Metaphors
2.2.10 Verb-Predication Metaphors with Genitives
3. From Metaphors to Analogies
3.1 Literal and Metaphorical Interpretations
3.2 Using the Core Schema to Interpret Metaphors
3.3 Sample Algorithms for Filling the Core Schema
3.3.1 Verb-Predication Metaphors
3.3.2 Noun-Identification Metaphors with Genitive Phrases
3.3.3 Noun-Identification Metaphors
3.3.4 Noun-Predication Metaphors
3.4 From the Core Schema to its Analogy
3.5 An Extended Application of the Core Schema
3.6 Finding the Analogies in Larger Texts
4. Conclusion

7. Analogy and Truth

1. Introduction
2. Truth-Conditions for Analogies
2.1 Truthful Metaphors based on Truthful Analogies
2.2 Analogy Completion: The Miller Analogies Test
2.3 Truth-Conditions for Analogies
3. Logical Paraphrases for Metaphors
3.1 Literal and Metaphorical Meanings
3.2 Simple Analogical Truth-Conditions
3.2.1 Noun-Identifications
3.2.2 Noun-Identifications with Prepositional Phrases
3.2.3 Verb-Predications
3.3 Trivial Satisfactions of Analogical Truth-Conditions
4. Rules for Assigning Truth-Values to Metaphors
4.1 Metaphor and Modality
4.2 Truth-Conditions based on Analogical Counterparts
4.2.1 Individual-Individual Identification
4.2.2 Sortal-Sortal Identification
4.2.3 Individual-Sortal Predication
4.2.4 Individual-Property Predication
4.2.5 Property-Property Predication
4.2.6 Source Relation with Target Arguments
4.2.7 Source Relation with Target and Source Arguments
4.3 Metaphorical Existence Problems
5. Metaphorical Identity is Relative Indiscernibility
5.1 Relative Indiscernibility
5.2 Analogy Metaphors as Relative Indiscernibilities
5.3 Similarity Metaphors as Relative Indiscernibilities
6. Conclusion
Appendix 7.1: Intensional Semantics for Metaphors
1. Introduction
2. Logical Space
3. Permutations of Particulars
4. Equivalence of Situations
5. Isomorphism of Situations
6. Analogy of Situations
7. Intensional Semantics for Analogies
8. Analogical Truth-Conditions for Metaphors
9. Functions from Situation-Pairs to Truth-Values

8. Metaphor and Inference

1. Introduction
2. Metaphor and Inference
2.1 Forward and Backward Inference
2.2 Inference in Metaphor Interpretation
2.3 Inference to the Best Literal Paraphrase
2.4 Inference in Metaphor Justification
3. Metaphor Justification
3.1 Metaphors as Hypotheses
3.2 Abductive Logics for (Dis)confirmation of Hypotheses
3.3 Syntactic and Semantic Constraints on Abductive Arguments
3.4 Abductive Arguments for Metaphorical Propositions
3.5 The Transference of Source (In)Coherence Relations
3.6 Cognitive Meaningfulness for Metaphors
4. Metaphor Interpretation
4.1 The Black-Tourangeau Metaphor Interpretation Method
4.2 Computation of Implication Complexes
4.3 Transference by Deduction & Abduction
4.4 A Historical Example of Black's Procedure
4.5 Entailments of Verb-Predication Metaphors
4.6 Common Abstract Entailments and Logical Paraphrases
5. Conclusion

9. Lexical Meanings

1. Introduction
2. Definitions for Metaphorical Predicates
2.1 Operational Definitions
2.2 Open Lists of Partial Definitions
2.3 Definitions for Concepts in Natural Lexicons
2.4 From Approximate Meanings to New Definitions
3. Metaphors Based on Perfect Analogies
4. Inference to the Best Definition
4.1 Metaphor Interpretation via Common Abstract Entailments
4.2 Metaphor Interpretation via Implication and Explanation
5. Informative Truth-Conditions
5.1 From Counterparts to Meaning Postulates
5.2 Truth-Conditions and Confirmation-Conditions for Metaphors
6. Metaphors Based on Imperfect Analogies
6.1 First Application of the Deduction-Abduction Technique
6.2 Second Application of the Deduction-Abduction Technique
7. Conclusion

10. Conclusion

11. References